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Δευτέρα, 2 Ιουλίου 2012

Λυγερός Νίκος - Η ανακήρυξη της ΑΟΖ και Υπόδειγμα Νομοσχεδίο​υ για την θέσπιση της ελληνικής ΑΟΖ

     Η ανακήρυξη της ΑΟΖ είναι το επόμενο στάδιο μετά τις εκλογές. Έχουμε εκλεγμένη κυβέρνηση και αντιπολίτευση που είναι πλέον ενημερωμένες ή στην τελική φάση της ενημέρωσης, όσον αφορά στις τεχνικές διαδικασίες για το θέμα της Αποκλειστικής Οικονομικής Ζώνης και υπάρχει πια μια γενική σύγκλιση απόψεων περί της ανακήρυξής της. Ξέρουν όλοι πια ότι γίνεται μονομερώς από το κράτος μετά από υποβολή νομοσχεδίου από την κυβέρνηση και υπερψήφιση από τη Βουλή. Επιπλέον, πρόκειται για ένα σύντομο κείμενο, το οποίο δεν χρειάζεται μια περίπλοκη συζήτηση για να γίνει αποδεκτό. Στην πραγματικότητα, αν υπάρξει συνομιλία και καθυστέρηση θα είναι μόνο για λόγους κομματικούς και όχι εθνικούς. Η ΑΟΖ είναι εκ φύσης ένα υπερκομματικό θέμα και δεν μπορούμε να αποδεχτούμε οποιαδήποτε μεγάλη καθυστέρηση. Διότι η κυβέρνηση έχει συμφωνήσει σε τριπλό επίπεδο ότι η ΑΟΖ αποτελεί μια προτεραιότητα στα ζητήματα εθνικής πολιτικής. Και στην αντιπολίτευση υπάρχουν επίσης κόμματα που προωθούν δυναμικά το θέμα. Κάθε αντιπαράθεση είναι μόνο τεχνητή και εσωτερική. Δεν έχει καμιά σχέση με κάθε εξωτερικό παράγοντα. Το όλο θέμα ανήκει μόνο και μόνο στο πλαίσιο της πολιτικής απόφασης. Δεν υπάρχει πια καμιά τεχνική ή νομική δυσκολία. Ας υλοποιήσουμε λοιπόν όσο πιο γρήγορα γίνεται αυτό το απαραίτητο όραμα για την Ελλάδα. Σε συνδυασμό με αυτή τη διαδικασία πρέπει να γίνει και η πληροφόρηση στο εξωτερικό, έτσι ώστε να αλλάξει η άποψη τους και να συνειδητοποιήσουν όλοι ότι η πατρίδα μας περνά τώρα σε μια φάση δυναμικής που προσφέρει δυνατότητες άμεσες. Ένα χειροπιαστό παράδειγμα είναι η σεισμική έρευνα, η οποία μπορεί να γίνει άμεσα. Η Ελλάδα έχει τη δυνατότητα να υπογράψει ένα συμβόλαιο με την εταιρία της επιλογής της, διότι είναι θέμα εθνικό. Στην συνέχεια μπορεί να εξασφαλίσει την έρευνα και την χαρτογράφηση σε 3D , αναθέτοντας το έργο στην εταιρία και να της επιτρέψει να πωλήσει τους χάρτες μόνο με την άδειά της. Η εταιρία κάνει πρώτα την απόσβεση της τεχνικής έρευνας. Και μετά κρατά ένα ποσοστό για την επένδυσή της και ένα ποσοστό για το κράτος. Ακριβώς με αυτόν τον τρόπο η Κύπρος έλαβε ήδη 23 εκατομμύρια ευρώ, δίχως να ξοδέψει τίποτα. Η Ελλάδα μπορεί να ενεργοποιήσει άμεσα την ανάλογη διαδικασία μετά την ανακήρυξη. Λόγω της συμφωνίας με την Κύπρο και της νορβηγικής εταιρίας μπορεί η Ελλάδα να κάνει την ίδια χρήση και να εξασφαλίσει έτσι μια ουδέτερη παρέμβαση προς άμεσο όφελός της. Όλο αυτό σε απάντηση στο ερώτημα αν η ανακήρυξη προσφέρει οικονομικό όφελος και πόσο γρήγορα. Τώρα είναι σαφές. Ας ανακηρύξουμε την ΑΟΖ άμεσα λοιπόν.

Υπόδειγμα Νομοσχεδίο​υ για την θέσπιση της ελληνικής ΑΟΖ
A LAW TO PROVIDE FOR THE PROCLAMATION OF THE EXCLUSIVE
ECONOMIC ZONE BY THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Day, Month, 2012)

Short title 1. This Law may be cited as the Exclusive Economic Zone Law of 2012.
Interpretation 2. (1) In this Law, unless the context otherwise requires –
“Exclusive Economic Zone” means the zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea of the Republic, the limits of which are determined by Article 3;
“Republic” means the Hellenic Republic;
“Director” means the Director of the Department of Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change;
“Court” means the Court as provided for in Article 10;
“Living resources” include fish and any other living organisms, except for the sedentary species, as determined by Article 77 of the Convention;
“Non-living resources” means the mineral and other non-living resources normally lying on the sea-bed and its subsoil;
“Nautical mile” means the distance of one thousand eight hundred and fifty two meters;
“Convention” means the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which was ratified by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ratification) Law of 1995;
“Minister” means the Minister of Environment, Energy and Climate Change and any other person generally or specifically authorized in this regard.
(2) Definitions, unless otherwise interpreted in this Article, shall have the meaning given to them by the Convention and in case of conflict between this Law and the Convention, the interpretation of the Convention prevails.

Proclamation 3. (1) By this Law, the Exclusive Economic Zone is proclaimed, the outer limit of
and which shall not extend beyond the 200 nautical miles from the baselines
Delimitation from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
of the
Exclusive
Economic
Zone
(2) In cases where part of the Exclusive Economic Zone overlaps with part of the Exclusive Economic Zone of any other State, with opposite coasts to those of the Republic, the delimitation between the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic and the Exclusive Economic Zone of the other State, shall be effected by agreement by the States directly concerned; in the absence of an agreement, the delimitation of this zone shall not extend beyond the median line or the equidistance line measured from the respective baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

(3) The exact limits of the Exclusive Economic Zone at any given time, shall be made public by Notification issued by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to be published in the official Gazette of the Republic, as these limits will be shaped according to the specific areas and the possible delimitation agreements to be reached in accordance with the provisions of subsections (1) and (2).



Rights and 4. (1) In the exclusive Economic Zone the Republic has:
Jurisdiction
In the
Exclusive
Economic
Zone
(a) sovereign rights for the purposes of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the sea-bed and of the sea-bed ant its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds;
(b) jurisdiction with regard to:
(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures;
(ii) marine scientific research;
(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;
(2) The rights set out in this article with respect to the sea-bed and subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI of the Convention-Provisions on the Continental Shelf.
Rights and 5. (1) In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Law in the Exclusive
Duties of Economic Zone, the Republic shall have due regard to the rights and duties of
other States other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of the
in the Convention.
Exclusive
Economic
Zone
(2) In the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic, the other States enjoy the rights and perform the duties provided under the Convention. In exercising their rights and performing their duties, States shall have due regard to the rights and duties of the Republic and shall comply with the laws and regulations adopted by the Republic in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with the relevant Part of the Convention.
Conservation 6. The Minister may by order published in the official Gazette of the Republic, to
of the living determine the allowable catch and the species of the living resources which may be
resources caught in the Exclusive Economic Zone.
Exploration and 7. (1) No one is allowed to undertake in the Exclusive Economic Zone any
exploitation of exploration or exploitation of the living resources, except in the cases where
the living a permission is given by the Minister, in accordance with this Law or any
resources other Law or Regulations, or by the Director in accordance with the Law on Fisheries.

(2) (a) Any person violating the provisions of sub-section (1) of this Article, commits an offence and, in case of conviction, he is subject to pecuniary penalty not exceeding one hundred thousand Euro (€ 100.000) or imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to both of these penalties. In case of a second or subsequent conviction, this person is subject to pecuniary penalty not exceeding two hundred thousand Euro (€ 200.000) or imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years of to both of these penalties.
(b) In addition to any penalty imposed under the provisions of paragraph (a) of this sub-section, the Court may order the confiscation of any vessel, object, equipment or material, including catch, which was used or caught during the commitment of the offence.
Exploration and 8. (1) No one is allowed to undertake in the Exclusive Economic Zone, any
exploitation exploration or exploitation of the non-living resources, except for in the
of the non- cases where a permission is given by the Council of Ministers, in accordance
living with this Law or any other Law, or by any other competent authority under
ressources any other Law or Regulations.

(2) (a) Any person violating the provisions of sub-section (1) of this Article, commits an offence and, in case of conviction, he is subject to pecuniary penalty not exceeding two hundred fifty thousand Euro (€ 250.000) or imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both of these penalties. In case of a second or subsequent conviction, this person is subject to pecuniary penalty not exceeding five hundred thousand Euro (€ 500.000) or imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years or to both of these penalties.
(b) In addition to any penalty imposed under the provisions of paragraph (a) of this sub-section, the Court may order the confiscation of any vessel, object, equipment, or material, including the non-living resources catch, which was used or caught during the commitment of the offence.
Liability of 9. When an offence is committed by a legal person in violation of the provisions of this Law
legal and it is proven that this offence is committed with the assent or consent or
person it is attributed to any negligence of any managing counselor, director, secretary or other
officer of the legal entity, this person as well as the legal entity is guilty
for the commitment of such an offence.
Exclusive 10. The District Court of Athens or the Criminal Court, according to the seriousness of
Jurisdiction the offence, holding its sessions in Athens, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to try
of Court all offences under this Law and shall have power to impose any penalty provided
under this Law or any regulations made thereunder.
Regulations 11. (1) The Council of Ministers may make regulations for the better carrying out of the provisions of this Law.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), these regulations may serve all or some of the following purposes, that is:
(a) the preservation of the living resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone;
(b) the protection of the environment in this zone;
(c) with reference to foreign vessels, the regulation of the fishing areas, the types, sizes and amount of gear, and the types, sizes and number of fishing vessels that may be used;
(d) the regulation of matters pertaining to marine scientific research;
(e) the authority of boarding on foreign vessels, inspecting, arresting and confiscating, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted in order to safeguard the relevant sovereign rights of the Republic; and
(f) licensing procedures for rights to be enjoyed in the Exclusive Economic Zone.
Entry into 12. This Law enters into force on the Day. Month. 2012
force of
this Law

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